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    Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice.

    Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred , police commissioner Gordon , and vigilante allies such as Robin.

    Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any superpowers ; rather, he relies on his genius intellect, physical prowess, martial arts abilities, detective skills, science and technology, vast wealth, intimidation, and indomitable will.

    A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery , including his archenemy , the Joker.

    The character became popular soon after his introduction in and gained his own comic book title, Batman , the following year.

    As the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended.

    Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller.

    The success of Warner Bros. Pictures ' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture.

    A cultural icon, Batman has garnered enormous popularity and is among the most identifiable comic book characters.

    Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations , from radio to television and film, and appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel, toys, and video games.

    The character has also intrigued psychiatrists, with many offering interpretations of his psyche. In early , the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications the future DC Comics to request more superheroes for its titles.

    In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". I went over to Kane's, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of He had two stiff wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings.

    And under it was a big sign Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, and gloves; he also recommended removing the red sections from the original costume.

    Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality, methods, and weaponry.

    Details find predecessors in pulp fiction , comic strips , newspaper headlines, and autobiographical details referring to Kane himself.

    Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, and marked his work with a signature symbol.

    Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. One day I called Bill and said, 'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.

    At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin later wore, on Batman's face. Bill said, 'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, and take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?

    I thought that red and black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright: As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope.

    Also, he didn't have any gloves on, and we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints. Kane signed away ownership in the character in exchange for, among other compensation, a mandatory byline on all Batman comics.

    This byline did not originally say "Batman created by Bob Kane"; his name was simply written on the title page of each story.

    The name disappeared from the comic book in the mids, replaced by credits for each story's actual writer and artists. In the late s, when Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster began receiving a "created by" credit on the Superman titles, along with William Moulton Marston being given the byline for creating Wonder Woman , Batman stories began saying "Created by Bob Kane" in addition to the other credits.

    Finger did not receive the same recognition. While he had received credit for other DC work since the s, he began, in the s, to receive limited acknowledgment for his Batman writing; in the letters page of Batman February for example, editor Julius Schwartz names him as the creator of the Riddler , one of Batman's recurring villains.

    However, Finger's contract left him only with his writing page rate and no byline. Kane wrote, "Bill was disheartened by the lack of major accomplishments in his career.

    He felt that he had not used his creative potential to its fullest and that success had passed him by. Jerry Robinson , who also worked with Finger and Kane on the strip at this time, has criticized Kane for failing to share the credit.

    He recalled Finger resenting his position, stating in a interview with The Comics Journal:. Bob made him more insecure, because while he slaved working on Batman, he wasn't sharing in any of the glory or the money that Bob began to make, which is why That was one thing I would never forgive Bob for, was not to take care of Bill or recognize his vital role in the creation of Batman.

    As with Siegel and Shuster, it should have been the same, the same co-creator credit in the strip, writer, and artist. Although Kane initially rebutted Finger's claims at having created the character, writing in a open letter to fans that "it seemed to me that Bill Finger has given out the impression that he and not myself created the ''Batman, t' [ sic ] as well as Robin and all the other leading villains and characters.

    This statement is fraudulent and entirely untrue. However, if one wants the 'credit', then one has to cease being a 'ghost' or follower and become a leader or innovator.

    In those days it was like, one artist and he had his name over it [the comic strip] — the policy of DC in the comic books was, if you can't write it, obtain other writers, but their names would never appear on the comic book in the finished version.

    So Bill never asked me for it [the byline] and I never volunteered — I guess my ego at that time. And I felt badly, really, when he [Finger] died.

    In September , DC Entertainment revealed that Finger would be receiving credit for his role in Batman's creation on the superhero film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and the second season of Gotham after a deal was worked out between the Finger family and DC.

    Arkham Knight Genesis 3. The updated acknowledgment for the character appeared as "Batman created by Bob Kane with Bill Finger".

    Finger said, "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps", [26] and this influence was evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals.

    Batman proved a hit character, and he received his own solo title in while continuing to star in Detective Comics.

    By that time, Detective Comics was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry; Batman and the company's other major hero, Superman, were the cornerstones of the company's success.

    Creators including Jerry Robinson and Dick Sprang also worked on the strips during this period. Over the course of the first few Batman strips elements were added to the character and the artistic depiction of Batman evolved.

    Kane noted that within six issues he drew the character's jawline more pronounced, and lengthened the ears on the costume. The character's origin was revealed in 33 Nov.

    Written by Finger, it depicts a young Bruce Wayne witnessing his parents' murder at the hands of a mugger. Days later, at their grave, the child vows that "by the spirits of my parents [I will] avenge their deaths by spending the rest of my life warring on all criminals".

    The early, pulp-inflected portrayal of Batman started to soften in Detective Comics 38 April with the introduction of Robin , Batman's junior counterpart.

    That story prompted editor Whitney Ellsworth to decree that the character could no longer kill or use a gun. By , the writers and artists behind the Batman comics had established most of the basic elements of the Batman mythos.

    The impact of this editorial approach was evident in Batman comics of the postwar period; removed from the "bleak and menacing world" of the strips of the early s, Batman was instead portrayed as a respectable citizen and paternal figure that inhabited a "bright and colorful" environment.

    Batman was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the s.

    In the story "The Mightiest Team in the World" in Superman 76 June , Batman teams up with Superman for the first time and the pair discover each other's secret identity.

    Batman comics were among those criticized when the comic book industry came under scrutiny with the publication of psychologist Fredric Wertham 's book Seduction of the Innocent in Wertham's thesis was that children imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupted the morals of the youth.

    Wertham criticized Batman comics for their supposed homosexual overtones and argued that Batman and Robin were portrayed as lovers.

    The tendency towards a "sunnier Batman" in the postwar years intensified after the introduction of the Comics Code. In the late s, Batman stories gradually became more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of other DC characters that had dabbled in the genre.

    Batman's adventures often involved odd transformations or bizarre space aliens. By , sales of Batman titles had fallen drastically.

    Bob Kane noted that, as a result, DC was "planning to kill Batman off altogether". He presided over drastic changes, beginning with 's Detective Comics May , which was cover-billed as the "New Look".

    Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman more contemporary, and to return him to more detective-oriented stories.

    He brought in artist Carmine Infantino to help overhaul the character. The Batmobile was redesigned, and Batman's costume was modified to incorporate a yellow ellipse behind the bat-insignia.

    The space aliens, time travel, and characters of the s such as Batwoman, Ace, and Bat-Mite were retired. Bruce Wayne's butler Alfred was killed off though his death was quickly reversed while a new female relative for the Wayne family, Aunt Harriet, came to live with Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson.

    The debut of the Batman television series in had a profound influence on the character. The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman reached a circulation of close to , copies.

    Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in In the aftermath, the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again.

    As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books.

    Starting in , writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams made a deliberate effort to distance Batman from the campy portrayal of the s TV series and to return the character to his roots as a "grim avenger of the night".

    I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after. Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inker Dick Giordano , and in actuality these men were mixed and matched with various other creators during the s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous".

    The Animated Series , which debuted in The comic book, which tells the story of a year-old Batman coming out of retirement in a possible future, reinvigorated interest in the character.

    The Dark Knight Returns was a financial success and has since become one of the medium's most noted touchstones. That year Dennis O'Neil took over as editor of the Batman titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman following DC's status quo-altering miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths.

    O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before.

    Writer Alan Moore and artist Brian Bolland continued this dark trend with 's page one-shot Batman: The Killing Joke , in which the Joker, attempting to drive Commissioner Gordon insane, cripples Gordon's daughter Barbara , and then kidnaps and tortures the commissioner, physically and psychologically.

    The Batman comics garnered major attention in when DC Comics created a number for readers to call to vote on whether Jason Todd , the second Robin, lived or died.

    Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes see Batman: A Death in the Family. The " Knightfall " story arc introduced a new villain, Bane , who critically injures Batman after pushing him to the limits of his endurance.

    Writers Doug Moench , Chuck Dixon , and Alan Grant worked on the Batman titles during "Knightfall", and would also contribute to other Batman crossovers throughout the s.

    Another writer who rose to prominence on the Batman comic series, was Jeph Loeb. Along with longtime collaborator Tim Sale, they wrote two miniseries The Long Halloween and Dark Victory that pit an early in his career version of Batman against his entire rogues gallery including Two-Face , whose origin was re-envisioned by Loeb while dealing with various mysteries involving serial killers Holiday and the Hangman.

    In , Loeb teamed with artist Jim Lee to work on another mystery arc: Hush " for the main Batman book. The 12—issue storyline has Batman and Catwoman teaming up against Batman's entire rogues gallery, including an apparently resurrected Jason Todd , while seeking to find the identity of the mysterious supervillain Hush.

    The series became 1 on the Diamond Comic Distributors sales chart for the first time since Batman Oct.

    Written by Frank Miller and drawn by Jim Lee, the series was a commercial success for DC Comics, [61] [62] although it was widely panned by critics for its writing and strong depictions of violence.

    Starting in , Grant Morrison and Paul Dini were the regular writers of Batman and Detective Comics , with Morrison reincorporating controversial elements of Batman lore.

    Most notably of these elements were the science fiction themed storylines of the s Batman comics, which Morrison revised as hallucinations Batman suffered under the influence of various mind-bending gases and extensive sensory deprivation training.

    Morrison's run climaxed with "Batman R. In the miniseries Batman: In , the storyline Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne saw Bruce travel through history, eventually returning to the present day.

    Although he reclaimed the mantle of Batman, he also allowed Grayson to continue being Batman as well. Bruce decided to take his crime-fighting cause globally, which is the central focus of Batman Incorporated.

    Also, Bruce appeared in another ongoing series, Batman: In September , DC Comics' entire line of superhero comic books, including its Batman franchise, were canceled and relaunched with new 1 issues as part of the New 52 reboot.

    Dick Grayson returns to the mantle of Nightwing and appears in his own ongoing series. While many characters have their histories significantly altered to attract new readers, Batman's history remains mostly intact.

    Batman Incorporated was relaunched in — to complete the "Leviathan" storyline. With the beginning of the New 52, Scott Snyder was the writer of the Batman title.

    His first major story arc was " Night of the Owls ", where Batman confronts the Court of Owls , a secret society that has controlled Gotham for centuries.

    The second story arc was " Death of the Family ", where the Joker returns to Gotham and simultaneously attacks each member of the Batman family.

    The third story arc was " Batman: Zero Year ", which redefined Batman's origin in The New It followed Batman 0, published in June , which explored the character's early years.

    The final storyline before the " Convergence " storyline was " Endgame ", depicting the supposed final battle between Batman and the Joker when he unleashes the deadly Endgame virus onto Gotham City.

    The storyline ends with Batman and the Joker's supposed deaths. Starting with Batman vol. However, Bruce Wayne is soon revealed to be alive, albeit now suffering almost total amnesia of his life as Batman and only remembering his life as Bruce Wayne through what he has learned from Alfred.

    Bruce Wayne finds happiness and proposes to his girlfriend, Julie Madison , but Mr. Bloom heavily injures Jim Gordon and takes control of Gotham City and threatens to destroy the city by energizing a particle reactor to create a "strange star" to swallow the city.

    Bruce Wayne discovers the truth that he was Batman and after talking to a stranger who smiles a lot it is heavily implied that this is the amnesic Joker he forces Alfred to implant his memories as Batman, but at the cost of his memories as the reborn Bruce Wayne.

    He returns and helps Jim Gordon defeat Mr. Bloom and shut down the reactor. Gordon gets his job back as the commissioner, and the government Batman project is shut down.

    Batman was rebooted as starting with a one-shot issue entitled Batman: The series then began shipping twice-monthly as a third volume, starting with Batman vol.

    The Batman series introduced two vigilantes, Gotham and Gotham Girl. Detective Comics resumed its original numbering system starting with June 's , and the New 52 series was labeled as volume 2 with issues numbering from The continuity established by Rebirth continues across DC's comic book titles, including volume one of Detective Comics and the third volume of Batman.

    Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American industrialist. As a child, Bruce witnessed the murder of his parents, Dr.

    Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne , which ultimately led him to craft the Batman persona and seek justice against criminals.

    He resides on the outskirts of Gotham City in his personal residence, Wayne Manor. Wayne averts suspicion by acting the part of a superficial playboy idly living off his family's fortune and the profits of Wayne Enterprises , his inherited conglomerate.

    Although Bruce Wayne leads an active romantic life, his vigilante activities as Batman account for most of his time. Various modern stories have portrayed the extravagant, playboy image of Bruce Wayne as a facade.

    Writers of Batman and Superman stories have often compared and contrasted the two. Interpretations vary depending on the writer, the story, and the timing.

    He notes an equally stark contrast in their real identities. Bruce Wayne and Clark Kent belong to different social classes: James Musler's book Unleashing the Superhero in Us All explores the extent to which Bruce Wayne's vast personal wealth is important in his life story, and the crucial role it plays in his efforts as Batman.

    Will Brooker notes in his book Batman Unmasked that "the confirmation of the Batman's identity lies with the young audience There's just a sense about him: Batman's primary character traits can be summarized as "wealth; physical prowess; deductive abilities and obsession".

    Dennis O'Neil noted that character consistency was not a major concern during early editorial regimes: Julie and Murray did not want to coordinate their efforts, nor were they asked to do so.

    Continuity was not important in those days. The driving force behind Bruce Wayne's character is his parents' murder and their absence. Bob Kane and Bill Finger discussed Batman's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes".

    Another of Batman's characterizations is that of a vigilante; in order to stop evil that started with the death of his parents, he must sometimes break the law himself.

    Although manifested differently by being re-told by different artists, it is nevertheless that the details and the prime components of Batman's origin have never varied at all in the comic books, the "reiteration of the basic origin events holds together otherwise divergent expressions".

    Batman is often treated as a vigilante by other characters in his stories. Frank Miller views the character as "a dionysian figure, a force for anarchy that imposes an individual order".

    Batman's original character was changed in the s when the now-defunct comic book codes went into effect, and DC editor Whitney Ellsworth reinvented Batman as having a stringent moral code which never allowed him to kill.

    On several occasions former Robin Dick Grayson has served as Batman; most notably in while Wayne was believed dead, and served as a second Batman even after Wayne returned in In an interview with IGN , Morrison detailed that having Dick Grayson as Batman and Damian Wayne as Robin represented a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman and a scowling, badass Robin".

    Morrison explained his intentions for the new characterization of Batman: The guy has been Batman's partner since he was a kid, he's led the Teen Titans , and he's trained with everybody in the DC Universe.

    So he's a very different kind of Batman. He's a lot easier; He's a lot looser and more relaxed. Over the years, there have been numerous others to assume the name of Batman, or to officially take over for Bruce during his leaves of absence.

    Jean Paul Valley , also known as Azrael , assumed the cowl after the events of the Knightfall saga. Endgame , and served as Batman in and Additionally, members of the group Batman, Incorporated , Bruce Wayne's experiment at franchising his brand of vigilantism, have at times stood in as the official Batman in cities around the world.

    Batman's interactions with both villains and cohorts have, over time, developed a strong supporting cast of characters. Batman faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains.

    Many of them mirror aspects of the Batman's character and development, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime.

    Batman's "most implacable foe" is the Joker , a homicidal maniac with a clown-like appearance. The Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary, since he is the antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance; the Joker has a maniacal demeanor with a colorful appearance, while Batman has a serious and resolute demeanor with a dark appearance.

    As a "personification of the irrational", the Joker represents "everything Batman [opposes]". Many of Batman's adversaries are often psychiatric patients at Arkham Asylum.

    Batman's butler, Alfred Pennyworth , first appeared in Batman 16 He serves as Bruce Wayne's loyal father figure and is one of the few persons to know his secret identity.

    Alfred raised Bruce after his parents' death and knows him on a very personal level. He is sometimes portrayed as a sidekick to Batman and the only other resident of Wayne Manor aside from Bruce.

    The character "[lends] a homely touch to Batman's environs and [is] ever ready to provide a steadying and reassuring hand" to the hero and his sidekick.

    The informal name " Batman family " is used for a group of characters closely allied with Batman, generally masked vigilantes who either have been trained by Batman or operate in Gotham City with his tacit approval.

    Barbara Gordon , Commissioner Gordon's daughter, who has fought crime under the vigilante identity of Batgirl and, during a period in which she was confined to a wheelchair due to a gunshot wound inflicted by the Joker, the computer hacker Oracle; Helena Bertinelli , the sole surviving member of a mob family turned vigilante, who has worked with Batman on occasion, primarily as the Huntress and as Batgirl for a brief stint; Cassandra Cain , the daughter of professional assassins David Cain , and Lady Shiva , who succeeded Bertinelli as Batgirl.

    Lucius Fox , a technology specialist and Bruce Wayne's business manager who is well aware of his employer's clandestine vigilante activities; Dr.

    Leslie Thompkins , a family friend who like Alfred became a surrogate parental figure to Bruce Wayne after the deaths of his parents, and is also aware of his secret identity; Vicki Vale , an investigative journalist who often reports on Batman's activities for the Gotham Gazette; Ace the Bat-Hound , Batman's canine partner who was mainly active in the s and s; [96] and Bat-Mite , an extra-dimensional imp mostly active in the s who idolizes Batman.

    As a crime-fighting everyman , he shares Batman's goals while offering, much as the character of Watson does in Sherlock Holmes stories, a normal person's perspective on the work of Batman's extraordinary genius.

    Batman is at times a member of superhero teams such as the Justice League of America and the Outsiders. In pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they are still close friends but an uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crime-fighting and justice.

    Then, with some gadget from his utility belt, he reminds me that he has an extraordinarily inventive mind. And how lucky I am to be able to call on him.

    Robin, Batman's vigilante partner, has been a widely recognized supporting character for many years. In the s he finally grew up, went off to college and became the hero Nightwing.

    A second Robin, Jason Todd , appeared in the s. In the stories he was eventually badly beaten and then killed in an explosion set by the Joker, but was later revived.

    He used the Joker's old persona, the Red Hood , and became an antihero vigilante with no qualms about using firearms or deadly force.

    The third Robin in mainstream comics is Tim Drake , who first appeared in He went on to star in his own comic series, and currently goes by Red Robin , a variation on the traditional Robin persona.

    In the first decade of the new millennium, Stephanie Brown served as the fourth in-universe Robin between stints as her self-made vigilante identity The Spoiler, and later as Batgirl.

    The role eventually passed to Damian Wayne , the ten-year-old son of Bruce Wayne and Talia al Ghul , in the late s. Unlike the Robins, Bluebird is willing and permitted to use a gun, albeit non-lethal ; her weapon of choice is a modified rifle that fires taser rounds.

    Helena Wayne is the biological daughter of Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle of an alternate universe established in the early s Multiverse where the golden-age stories took place.

    Terry McGinnis is the biological son of Bruce Wayne in the DC animated universe , and has taken over the role as Batman when Bruce has become too elderly to do it.

    Writers have varied in the approach over the years to the "playboy" aspect of Bruce Wayne's persona. Some writers show his playboy reputation as a manufactured illusion to support his mission as Batman, while others have depicted Bruce Wayne as genuinely enjoying the benefits of being "Gotham's most eligible bachelor".

    Bruce Wayne has been portrayed as being romantically linked with many women throughout his various incarnations. The most significant relationships occurred with Selina Kyle, who is also Catwoman [] and Talia al Ghul , as both women gave birth to his biological offsprings, Helena Wayne and Damian Wayne, respectively.

    Some of Batman's romantic interests have been women with a respected status in society, such as Julie Madison , Vicki Vale , and Silver St.

    While most of Batman's romantic relationships tend to be short in duration, Catwoman has been his most enduring romance throughout the years.

    Although Catwoman is typically portrayed as a villain, Batman and Catwoman have worked together in achieving common goals and are usually depicted as having a romantic connection.

    In an early s storyline, Selina Kyle and Bruce Wayne develop a relationship, in which the closing panel of the final story shows her referring to Batman as "Bruce".

    However, a change in the editorial team brought a swift end to that storyline and, apparently, all that transpired during the story arc.

    The story shows Selina saving Bruce from Poison Ivy. However, the relationship ends when Bruce rejects her advances twice; once as Bruce and once as Batman.

    Dark Victory , he stands her up on two holidays, causing her to leave him for good and to leave Gotham City for a while.

    When the two meet at an opera many years later, during the events of the twelve-issue story arc called " Hush ", Bruce comments that the two no longer have a relationship as Bruce and Selina.

    However, "Hush" sees Batman and Catwoman allied against the entire rogues gallery and rekindling their romantic relationship. In "'Hush", Batman reveals his true identity to Catwoman.

    They have a daughter named Helena Wayne , who becomes the Huntress. Along with Dick Grayson, the Earth-Two Robin , the Huntress takes the role as Gotham's protector once Bruce Wayne retires to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman.

    Batman and Catwoman are shown having a sexual encounter on the roof of a building in Catwoman vol. The two also have a romantic relationship, in which they are shown having a sexual encounter on a rooftop and sleeping together.

    When he does so, she says, "Yes. Towards the end, the story is flash-forwarded to the future, in which Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle are a married couple in their golden years.

    Bruce receives a terminal medical diagnosis, and Selina cares for him until his death. Batman has no inherent superhuman powers; he relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess".

    In the stories, Batman is regarded as one of the world's greatest detectives, if not the world's greatest crime solver. Doomed story arc, Superman considers Batman to be one of the most brilliant minds on the planet.

    Batman has trained extensively in various martial arts, mastering many different types, making him one of the best hand-to-hand fighters in the DC Universe.

    Superman describes Batman as "the most dangerous man on Earth", able to defeat an entire team of superpowered extraterrestrials by himself in order to rescue his imprisoned teammates in Grant Morrison's first storyline in JLA.

    Batman is strongly disciplined, and he has the ability to function under great physical pain and resist most forms of telepathy and mind control.

    He is a master of disguise , multilingual, and an expert in espionage , often gathering information under the identity of a notorious gangster named Matches Malone.

    Batman is highly skilled in stealth movement and escapology , which allows him to appear and disappear at will and to break free of nearly inescapable deathtraps with little to no harm.

    Batman is an expert in interrogation techniques and his intimidating and frightening appearance alone is often all that is needed in getting information from suspects.

    Despite having the potential to harm his enemies, Batman's most defining characteristic is his strong commitment to justice and his reluctance to take a life.

    This unyielding moral rectitude has earned him the respect of several heroes in the DC Universe, most notably that of Superman and Wonder Woman.

    Among physical and other crime fighting related training, he is also proficient at other types of skills. Some of these include being a licensed pilot in order to operate the Batplane , as well as being able to operate other types of machinery.

    In some publications, he underwent some magician training. In the comic, The Many Deaths of the Batman which focused on a former demolitions teacher of Batman who killed Batman's other teachers which included a race car driver, chemist, body builder, and gymnast all of whom were experts in their field.

    Batman utilizes a vast arsenal of specialized, high-tech vehicles and gadgets in his war against crime, the designs of which usually share a bat motif.

    Batman historian Les Daniels credits Gardner Fox with creating the concept of Batman's arsenal with the introduction of the utility belt in Detective Comics 29 July and the first bat-themed weapons the batarang and the "Batgyro" in Detective Comics 31 and 32 Sept.

    Batman's body armored costume incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals. Finger and Kane originally conceptualized Batman as having a black cape and cowl and grey suit, but conventions in coloring called for black to be highlighted with blue.

    In the Tim Burton 's Batman and Batman Returns films, Batman has been depicted as completely black with a bat in the middle surrounded by a yellow background.

    Christopher Nolan 's The Dark Knight Trilogy depicted Batman wearing high-tech gear painted completely black with a black bat in the middle. Ben Affleck 's Batman in the DC Extended Universe films wears a suit grey in color with a black cowl, cape, and bat symbol.

    Batman's batsuit aids in his combat against enemies, having the properties of both Kevlar and Nomex. It protects him from gunfire and other significant impacts.

    His gloves typically feature three scallops that protrude from long, gauntlet-like cuffs, although in his earliest appearances he wore short, plain gloves without the scallops.

    Dennis O'Neil said, "We now say that Batman has two hundred suits hanging in the Batcave so they don't have to look the same Everybody loves to draw Batman, and everybody wants to put their own spin on it.

    Batman's primary vehicle is the Batmobile , which is usually depicted as an imposing black car, often with tailfins that suggest a bat's wings. Batman also has an aircraft called the Batplane later called the "Batwing" , along with various other means of transportation.

    In proper practice, the "bat" prefix as in Batmobile or batarang is rarely used by Batman himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals primarily the s Batman live-action television show and the Super Friends animated series stretched the practice to campy proportions.

    For example, the s television show depicted a Batboat , Bat-Sub , and Batcycle , among other bat-themed vehicles. The s television series Batman has an arsenal that includes such "bat-" names as the bat-computer, bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, bat- shark repellent bat-spray, and bat-rope.

    The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own.

    In The Dark Knight Returns , Batman tells Carrie Kelley that the original Robin came up with the name "Batmobile" when he was young, since that is what a kid would call Batman's vehicle.

    The Batmobile was redesigned in when DC Comics relaunched its entire line of comic books, with the batmobile being given heavier armor and new aesthetics.

    Batman keeps most of his field equipment in his utility belt. Over the years it has shown to contain an assortment of crime-fighting tools, weapons, and investigative and technological instruments.

    Different versions of the belt have these items stored in compartments, often as pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it.

    Batman is often depicted as carrying a projectile which shoots a retractable grappling hook attached to a cable.

    This allows him to attach to distant objects, be propelled into the air, and thus swing from the rooftops of Gotham City.

    An exception to the range of Batman's equipment are guns , which he refuses to use on principle, since a gun was used in his parents' murder.

    When Batman is needed, the Gotham City police activate a searchlight with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens called the Bat-Signal, which shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham.

    The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium. In various incarnations, most notably the s Batman TV series , Commissioner Gordon also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone in the TV series which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent top.

    The line connects directly to Batman's residence, Wayne Manor , specifically both to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study and the extension phone in the Batcave.

    The Batcave is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of a series of subterranean caves beneath his mansion, Wayne Manor. As his command center, the Batcave serves multiple purposes; supercomputer, surveillance, redundant power-generators, forensics lab, medical infirmary, private study, training dojo, fabrication workshop, arsenal, hangar and garage.

    It houses the vehicles and equipment Batman uses in his campaign to fight crime. It is also a trophy room and storage facility for Batman's unique memorabilia collected over the years from various cases he has worked on.

    In both the comic Batman: Shadow of the Bat 45 and the film Batman Begins , the cave is said to have been part of the Underground Railroad.

    Batman's history has undergone many retroactive continuity revisions, both minor and major. Elements of the character's history have varied greatly. Scholars William Uricchio and Roberta E.

    Pearson noted in the early s, "Unlike some fictional characters, the Batman has no primary urtext set in a specific period, but has rather existed in a plethora of equally valid texts constantly appearing over more than five decades.

    The central fixed event in the Batman stories is the character's origin story. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha , murdered with a gun by a mugger named Joe Chill.

    Batman refuses to utilize any sort of gun on the principle that a gun was used to murder his parents. This event drove him to train his body to its peak condition and fight crime in Gotham City as Batman.

    Pearson and Uricchio also noted beyond the origin story and such events as the introduction of Robin, "Until recently, the fixed and accruing and hence, canonized, events have been few in number", [84] a situation altered by an increased effort by later Batman editors such as Dennis O'Neil to ensure consistency and continuity between stories.

    In Batman's first appearance in Detective Comics 27, he is already operating as a crime-fighter. As these comics state, Bruce Wayne is born to Dr.

    Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable Gotham City socialites. Bruce is brought up in Wayne Manor , and leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of eight, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named Joe Chill while on their way home from a movie theater.

    That night, Bruce Wayne swears an oath to spend his life fighting crime. He engages in intense intellectual and physical training; however, he realizes that these skills alone would not be enough.

    I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible In early strips, Batman's career as a vigilante earns him the ire of the police.

    Batman also becomes a founding member of the Justice Society of America , [] although he, like Superman, is an honorary member, [] and thus only participates occasionally.

    Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of Gotham City's police department. Batman is not significantly changed by the late s for the continuity which would be later referred to as Earth-One.

    The lighter tone Batman had taken in the period between the golden and silver ages led to the stories of the late s and early s that often feature many science-fiction elements, and Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics May , in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series.

    After the introduction of DC Comics' multiverse in the s, DC established that stories from the golden age star the Earth-Two Batman , a character from a parallel world.

    The two have a daughter, Helena Wayne , who becomes the Huntress. Amerikanska serier Amerikanska dagspresserier Batman Seriefigurer i DC Comics Superhjältar Kriminal- och agentserier Tecknade serier som blivit film Tecknade serier som blivit datorspel Tecknade serier som blivit TV-serier Fiktivt affärsfolk Fiktiva ingenjörer Seriefigurer introducerade Artiklar som behöver fler källor Alla artiklar som behöver fler källor Alla artiklar som behöver källor Wikipedia: Artiklar med Commonscatmall där property P har ett annat värde än mallen Wikipedia: Visningar Visa Redigera Redigera wikitext Visa historik.

    Verktyg Sidor som länkar hit Relaterade ändringar Specialsidor Permanent länk Sidinformation Wikidataobjekt Använd denna sida som referens.

    Sidan redigerades senast den 9 oktober kl. Wikipedias text är tillgänglig under licensen Creative Commons Erkännande-dela-lika 3.

    Den här artikeln behöver fler eller bättre källhänvisningar för att kunna verifieras. En man utklädd till Batman.

    Detective Comics 27 maj Bob Kane Bill Finger. Robin , Batgirl , Nightwing. Batmans första och mest kända medhjälpare.

    Kom senare att bli Nightwing. Batmans medhjälpare och Gordons dotter. Blev under en tid även Oracle. Bruce Waynes lojale butler. Alfred tog hand om Bruce när hans föräldrar blev mördade.

    Ofta när Batman ska ut och bekämpa brottslighet, brukar Alfred vara den som förbereder, t. Syns ofta i sällskap med superskurken Jokern som hon är förälskad i.

    Arbetade tidigare som psykiatriker vid Arkhamfängelset för mentalt sjuka brottslingar. Pingvinen är känd för att använda ombyggda paraplyer som vapen och över huvud taget som redskap i sin brottsliga verksamhet.

    Fick därefter en kluven personlighet. En forskare som efter en olycka i sitt laboratorium behöver vistas i temperaturer flera grader under noll för att överleva.

    För detta använder han en specialdesignad dräkt. Botaniker som efter ett förgiftningsförsök blivit helt immun mot alla slags gifter, virus och bakterier.

    Strategisk kroppsbyggare, vars fysiska styrka utökas genom användningen av ett gift som kallas "Venom". Kan ändra sitt utseende och forma sina händer till farliga vapen.

    En forskare som använder sinnesmanipulerande enheter under sina brott. Är besatt av sagan Alice i Underlandet. Arnold Wesker är en stressad och undergiven buktalare, vars andra brottsliga persona representeras av en docka vid namn Scarface.

    Har inga övernaturliga krafter. Istället använder han sig av vapen och andra redskap. Kirurg som ibland förklär sig till sina mördade offer genom att skära ut deras ansikten och sy fast dem över sitt eget.

    Bet man -

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